MrBayes is a program for the Bayesian estimation of phylogeny. Bayesian inference of phylogeny is based upon a quantity called the posterior probability distribution of trees, which is the probability of a tree conditioned on the observations. The conditioning is accomplished using Bayes's theorem. The posterior probability distribution of trees is impossible to calculate analytically; instead, MrBayes uses a simulation technique called Markov chain Monte Carlo (or MCMC) to approximate the posterior probabilities of trees.
MPI is a standard library for performing parallel processing using a distributed-memory model. The Glenn and Oakley clusters at OSC use the MVAPICH implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI), which is based on MPICH and optimized for the high-speed Infiniband interconnects.
MVAPICH2, based on the MPI-2 standard, is installed on both Oakley and Glenn. The older MVAPICH, based on the MPI-1 standard, is installed on Glenn only.
LS-DYNA is a general purpose finite element code for simulating complex structural problems, specializing in nonlinear, transient dynamic problems using explicit integration. LS-DYNA is one of the codes developed at Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC).
The Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) is a classical molecular dynamics code designed for high-performance simulation of large molecular systems. LAMMPS generally scales well on OSC platforms, offers a variety of modelling techniques, and offers GPU enhanced computation.
The Intel compilers for both C/C++ and FORTRAN.
Profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs) can be used to do sensitive database searching using statistical descriptions of a sequence family's consensus. HMMER uses profile HMMs, and can be useful in situations like:
- if you are working with an evolutionarily diverse protein family, a BLAST search with any individual sequence may not find the rest of the sequences in the family.
- the top hits in a BLAST search are hypothetical sequences from genome projects.
- your protein consists of several domains which are of different types.
HMMER (pronounced 'hammer', as in a more precise mining tool than BLAST) was developed by Sean Eddy at Washington University in St. Louis.
HMMER is a very cpu-intensive program and is parallelized using threads, so that each instance of hmmsearch or the other search programs can use all the cpus available on a node. HMMER on OSC clusters are intended for those who need to run HMMER searches on large numbers of query sequences.
HDF5 is a general purpose library and file format for storing scientific data. HDF5 can store two primary objects: datasets and groups. A dataset is essentially a multidimensional array of data elements, and a group is a structure for organizing objects in an HDF5 file. Using these two basic objects, one can create and store almost any kind of scientific data structure, such as images, arrays of vectors, and structured and unstructured grids.
GROMACS is a versatile package of molecular dynamics simulation programs. It is primarily designed for biochemical molecules, but it has also been used on non-biological systems. GROMACS generally scales well on OSC platforms. Versions after 4.6 include GPU acceleration.
Gaussian is the most popular general purpose electronic structure program. Its latest version, g09, can perform density functional theory, Hartree-Fock, Möller-Plesset, coupled-cluster, and configuration interaction calculations among others. Geometry optimizations, vibrational frequencies, magnetic properties, and solution modeling are available. It performs well as black-box software on closed-shell ground state systems.
Oakley is an HP-built, Intel® Xeon® processor-based supercomputer, featuring more cores (8,328) on half as many nodes (694) as the center’s former flagshipsystem, the IBM Opteron 1350 Glenn Cluster. The Oakley Cluster can achieve 88 teraflops, tech-speak for performing 88 trillion floating point operations per second, or, with acceleration from 128 NVIDIA® Tesla graphic processing units (GPUs), a total peak performance of just over 154 teraflops.