Biological Sciences

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Ohio’s bioscience researchers are leveraging the resources of the Ohio Supercomputer Center to gather and analyze massive amounts of genetic, molecular and environmental data to better understand human physiology, individualize diagnoses and treat diseases.

Estrogen Receptors

A critical first step oncologists must take after finding a patient has breast cancer is to look for overexpressed hormone receptors in the cancer cells. This determines the type of therapy that will be used to most effectively combat the disease.

Botanical Alternatives

Sometimes numbers can be startling.

For instance, natural rubber is used in 50,000 commercial products, including 400 medical devices, because of its unique properties with regard to resilience, elasticity, abrasion and impact resistance, efficient heat dispersion and malleability at cold temperatures. It’s a critical raw material that developed countries simply can’t live without.

Hearing Loss

The difference between hearing and a lifetime of silence sometimes lies in the integrity of tiny inner ear proteins. Before Marcos Sotomayor, Ph.D., began studying these proteins, very little was known about hearing at the molecular level.

Bioinformatics Tools

In less than 10 years, the way genetic data has been collected has sped up in a major way. Previously, collecting data from a species was done one gene at a time, on an individual-by-individual basis, but new sequencing technologies allow researchers to process hundreds of thousands of genes at a time.

Targeted Therapies

The powerful slogan of  The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute is a testament to the recent paradigm shift in the field of oncology. For years, a patient’s cancer and treatment were characterized by location and stage. Now, researchers such as those in Dr.

Metagenomic Data

The oldest forms of life on Earth, bacteria and archaea, have managed to evolve and adapt to Earth’s changing environment over billions of years. As a result, bacteria and archaea could hold the answers to the persistence of complex life.

Antibiotic Resistance

Keith Marsolo and his team are developing novel techniques that could be used to more quickly identify patients whose bodies no longer respond to standard-use antibiotics. Sick children at CCHMC can develop this resistance after the many rounds of different antibiotics they receive to ward off infections from their weakened immune systems. 

Cell Communication

Plexins receive guidance cues from other proteins and transmit signals through the lipid membrane, regulating cell migration and targeting processes. However, if a signal is not transmitted correctly through plexin, studies have shown that this could result in serious neurological disorders.

HPV CANCER GENESIS

Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes about 610,000 cases of cancer worldwide, accounting for about 5 percent of all cancer cases and including virtually all cases of cervical cancer. Scientists have long known that certain types of HPV cause cancer, but they don’t completely understand all the steps that are involved.

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