The human body normally produces an immune-response messenger known as Interleukin-6 (IL-6) to combat infections, burns and traumatic injuries. Scientists have found, however, that in people who have breast or prostate cancer, the body fails to turn off the response and overproduces the protein molecule IL-6, causing inflammation.
A Cleveland Clinic research team is developing virtual models of human knee joints to better understand how tissues and their individual cells react to heavy loads – virtual models that someday can be used tounderstand damage caused by the aging process or by debilitating diseases, such as osteoarthritis.
Human sight depends on an organized choreography of the retina with its cone and rods cells, the optic nerve, the brain’s visual cortex and light – be it a sunny day or a dark, star-studded night.
Remarkably, in extremely poor illumination conditions, the retina can still perceive intensities corresponding to only a few photons. Rod rhodopsins enable this high sensitivity.
“When two genes interact to cause a clinically important phenotype, we can leverage genotypic information at one of the loci in order to improve our ability to detect the other,” said Veronica Vieland, Ph.D., vice president for computational research and director, Battelle Center for Mathematical Medicine.
Matthew Sullivan, Ph.D., and the Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) have teamed up to give scientists insight into how to better study viruses found in a variety of communities. This information could prove invaluable to understanding everything from what’s going on inside our bodies to how we might combat climate change.
Jason Slot, associate professor of fungal evolutionary genomics at The Ohio State University, is performing research to ensure the longevity of one of the world’s favorite crops: coffee. Specifically, Slot’s group studies the genomics of fungi that live in coffee plants to understand their function and relationship within the plant and to better understand the plant’s microbiome in general.
The Ohio State University’s Marymegan Daly and her research partners probed the depths of Monterey Bay to collect samples of the tube-dwelling sea anemone, samples that are allowing the scientists to generate and analyze the transcriptomes of these ancient animals and reveal the diversity of toxins within their venom.