Alzheimer’s disease is the most common human neurodegenerative disorder, affecting as many as 5.1 million people in America alone. Alzheimer’s leads to progressive and irreversible memory loss, disability and, eventually, death through a complex series of events that take place in the brain over a period of many years.
Of all the American school children receiving special education services, the largest number suffer from learning language impairments, including a subset of children that have language as their only deficit. Specifically Language Impaired (SLI) children have weakened language ability but otherwise possess normal hearing, education and intelligence.
The human body normally produces an immune-response messenger known as Interleukin-6 (IL-6) to combat infections, burns and traumatic injuries. Scientists have found, however, that in people who have breast or prostate cancer, the body fails to turn off the response and overproduces the protein molecule IL-6, causing inflammation.
A Cleveland Clinic research team is developing virtual models of human knee joints to better understand how tissues and their individual cells react to heavy loads – virtual models that someday can be used tounderstand damage caused by the aging process or by debilitating diseases, such as osteoarthritis.
Human sight depends on an organized choreography of the retina with its cone and rods cells, the optic nerve, the brain’s visual cortex and light – be it a sunny day or a dark, star-studded night.
Remarkably, in extremely poor illumination conditions, the retina can still perceive intensities corresponding to only a few photons. Rod rhodopsins enable this high sensitivity.